GM 1.4 Liter I4 LUU Engine
The LUU is an engine produced by General Motors that serves as an integral part of the Voltec propulsion system. Displacing 1.4 liters, the LUU is part of the Ecotec engine family and serves as the gasoline-powered engine-generator in GM’s extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs) such as the Chevrolet Volt and Cadillac ELR.
The heart of the Chevrolet Volt is its exclusive Voltec propulsion system, the world’s first plug-in, electrically driven, extended-range system in a production vehicle. It delivers ultra-high efficiency unlike that in any other vehicle, with between 25 and 50 miles of pure electric driving (depending on terrain, driving techniques and temperature), and an onboard Ecotec 1.4L (LUU) gasoline engine that extends the Volt’s range to a total of up to 379 miles.
Importantly, the 1.4L Ecotec engine does not provide drive power to the wheels. That’s accomplished with a 111-kW (149-hp) electric drive unit. Positioned under the hood next to the engine, it packages a pair of electric motors and a multi-mode transaxle with continuously variable capability. The engine serves as s generator to provide power to the vehicle’s electric motors.
- Cylinder Block and Structural Oil Pan: The Ecotec 1.4L cylinder block is made of strong gray cast iron, with five reinforced main bearings. To minimize weight, it features hollow-frame construction, making it about 20 percent lighter than a conventional casting. The block also incorporates a gray cast iron bedplate that helps reduce engine vibration; and the cylinders within the block are triple-honed for a smoother finish that minimizes piston friction and overall wear, while also optimizing oil and fuel consumption. An aluminum oil pan is designed as a key structural component of the engine, adding stiffness that helps improve vibration characteristics.
- Variable-Flow Oil Pump: The Ecotec 1.4L uses a unique variable-flow oiling system that helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The Ecotec 1.4L’s variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine’s demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.
- Variable Valve Timing: The dual-overhead camshaft arrangement of the engine employs dual, continuously variable cam phasing to adjust the engine valves’ opening and closing timing for optimal performance, fuel efficiency and emissions across the rpm.
- Cylinder Head: An aluminum cylinder head with dual-overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder is used on the Ecotec 1.4L turbo. The head’s intake port design optimizes performance, efficiency and emissions by promoting greater charge motion of the intake air and a more complete burn of the air/fuel mixture.
- Hollow-Cast and Chain-Driven Camshafts: The pair of camshafts in the Ecotec 1.4L is hollow and lighter than conventional solid shafts. Along with helping reduce the overall weight of the engine, they lower the inertia of the valvetrain, allowing the engine to rev higher and more quickly. The camshafts are driven by durable chains.
- Roller-Finger Camshaft Followers: A low-mass DOHC roller-finger camshaft follower is used to minimize friction and maintenance. It operates with very low frictional losses, helping enhance efficiency and lower emissions. The hydraulic lash adjusters and the chain cam drive require no maintenance during the life of the engine.
- Electronically controlled thermostat: The coolant thermostat’s operating point is electronically controlled to optimize engine temperatures during different phases of operation to enhance fuel efficiency. The engine control module monitors sensors and controls the thermostat based on mapping that takes into account the wide range of engine operating conditions, including temperature and load.
- Coil-on-plug ignition and platinum-tipped spark plugs: Volt’s Ecotec 1.4L engine features a coil-on-plug ignition system and platinum-tipped spark plugs, which reduce maintenance and promote optimal performance and efficiency. With the coil-on-plug design, individual ignition coils are connected via a short lead wire to the spark plugs over each cylinder. This direct ignition system design eliminates the need to route spark plug wires in the engine compartment, while ensuring maximum spark energy for each plug. The platinum-tipped plugs are designed to last for 100,000 miles without the need for replacement, reducing the need for and cost of maintenance.
|Type:||Ecotec 1.4L I4 VVT|
|Displacement:||1398 cc (85 ci)|
|Valve configuration:||Dual overhead camshafts, double continuously variable cam phaser intake and exhaust (DCVCP)|
|Valves per cylinder:||4|
|Assembly site:||Aspern, Austria and Flint, Michigan|
|Valve lifters:||Roller finger followers|
|Firing order:||1 – 3 – 4 – 2|
|Bore x Stroke:||73.4 x 82.6 mm|
|Bore Center (mm)||78|
|Fuel system:||Sequential multi-port fuel injectors with electronic throttle control|
|Fuel type:||Premium unleaded|
|Horsepower hp (kw)|
|Chevrolet/Holden Volt and Opel/Vauxhall Ampera:||84 hp (63 kW) @4800 rpm|
|Cadillac ELR:||84 hp (63 kW) @4800 rpm|
|Maximum Engine Speed:||4800 rpm|
|Close-coupled and underfloor catalytic converters|
|58x ignition system|
|Returnless fuel rail|
|Fast light-off O2 sensor|
|Block:||Gray cast iron|
|Cylinder head:||Cast aluminum|
|Exhaust manifold:||Stainless steel|
|Crankshaft:||Hollow cast iron|
|Camshaft:||Hollow cast iron|
|Connecting rods:||Cast iron|
|Low-mass hollow-frame cast iron block|
|Roller-finger camshaft followers|
|Variable-flow oil pump|
|Electronically controlled thermostat|
|Coil on plug ignition|
|Chevrolet Volt||MKA-E-Flex Ice Drive Unit, FWD|
|Cadillac ELR||MKA-E-Flex Ice Drive Unit, FWD|