### CHEM2.PS1: Matter and Its Interactions

#### CHEM2.PS1.1: Illustrate and explain the arrangement of electrons surrounding atoms and ions (electron configurations and orbital notation of a specific electron in an element) and relate the arrangement of electrons with observed periodic trends.

Electron Configuration

#### CHEM2.PS1.3: Compare and contrast crystalline and amorphous solids with respect to particle arrangement, strength of bonds, melting and boiling points, bulk density, and conductivity; provide examples of each type.

Melting Points

#### CHEM2.PS1.4: Investigate and use mathematical representations to support Dalton’s law of partial pressures and to compare and contrast diffusion and effusion.

Diffusion

Equilibrium and Pressure

#### CHEM2.PS1.5: Obtain data and solve combined and ideal gas law problems and stoichiometry problems at STP and non STP conditions to quantitatively explain the behavior of gases.

Boyle's Law and Charles's Law

Ideal Gas Law

#### CHEM2.PS1.7: Investigate, describe, and mathematically determine the effect of solute concentration on vapor pressure using Raoult’s Law and of the solute’s van ’t Hoff factor on freezing point depression and boiling point elevation.

Freezing Point of Salt Water

#### CHEM2.PS1.8: Develop models to show how different types of polymers, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and starches, are formed by repetitive combinations of simple subunits by condensation and addition reactions and to show the diverse bonding characteristics of carbon.

Covalent Bonds

Ionic Bonds

#### CHEM2.PS1.11: Conduct a qualitative analysis lab to determine the solubility rules. Use solubility rules to identify spectator ions and write net ionic equations for precipitation reactions.

Solubility and Temperature

#### CHEM2.PS1.14: Conduct titrations with standard solutions (monoprotic and diprotic) and an appropriate indicator and/or a pH probe to determine the concentration of an unknown acid or base, and with a weak acid or weak base to determine the Ka or Kb and the pH at the equivalence point.

Titration

#### CHEM2.PS1.15: Explain common chemical reactions, including those found in biological systems, using qualitative and quantitative information.

Cell Energy Cycle

#### CHEM2.PS1.16: Create a model of the atomic substructure including electrons, protons, neutrons, quarks, and gluons.

Bohr Model of Hydrogen

Bohr Model: Introduction

Element Builder

### CHEM2.PS2: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

#### CHEM2.PS2.1: Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the properties of the different types of intermolecular forces in pure substances and in components of a mixture.

Melting Points

Polarity and Intermolecular Forces

Sticky Molecules

#### CHEM2.PS2.3: Investigate and use mathematical evidence to support that rates of chemical reactions are determined by details of the molecular collisions.

Collision Theory

#### CHEM2.PS2.5: Investigate the parameters of chemical equilibria in the laboratory by

Equilibrium and Concentration

Equilibrium and Pressure

CHEM2.PS2.5.a: writing and calculating equilibrium expressions (Kc, Kp, Ksp, Ka, Kb);

Equilibrium and Concentration

Equilibrium and Pressure

CHEM2.PS2.5.b: calculating Q and determining the direction the reaction will proceed; and

Equilibrium and Concentration

Equilibrium and Pressure

CHEM2.PS2.5.c: calculating equilibrium concentrations given an equilibrium constant and starting amounts.

Equilibrium and Concentration

Equilibrium and Pressure

### CHEM2.PS3: Energy

#### CHEM2.PS3.1: Mathematically determine the enthalpy change for a given reaction using Hess’s Law, standard enthalpies of formation, or a given mass of a reactant.

Reaction Energy

#### CHEM2.PS3.5: Use Coulomb’s law and patterns of valence electron configurations to explain trends in ionization energies and reactivity of pure elements.

Periodic Trends

#### CHEM2.PS3.7: Investigate and explain the energy changes in biological systems (such as the combustion of sugar and photosynthesis) both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Cell Energy Cycle

Photosynthesis

### CHEM2.PS4: Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

#### CHEM2.PS4.1: Investigate and contrast the mechanism of energy changes and the appearance of absorption and emission spectra.

Bohr Model of Hydrogen

Bohr Model: Introduction

Star Spectra

#### CHEM2.PS4.2: Apply scientific principles and mathematical representations (C = (lambda)v and E = hv) to explain that spectral lines are the result of and correspond to transitions between energy levels.

Bohr Model of Hydrogen

Bohr Model: Introduction

Correlation last revised: 8/17/2021